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Schizophrenia research and the Jews

 
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In the late 1990s the Department of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University placed an advertisement in a number of newspapers, including this one, recruiting Jewish research subjects. The ad read: “Ashkenazi Jewish families are needed to help scientists understand the biological basis for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.” Now a new study recruiting schizophrenia patients in northern New Jersey is seeking volunteers. Although that study is recruiting from the Jewish community as well as the general population (see related story), past studies have targeted Jewish populations, in particular Ashkenazi Jews. Has this occurred because Jews are more likely to suffer from mental illness than other groups? Scientific research has not supported this notion; experts estimate the incidence of schizophrenia in the Ashkenazi Jewish population to be no higher than that of the general population (about one percent).

Why would scientists be so interested in studying mental illness in Jewish groups? Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that is thought to occur as a result of the interaction of multiple genetic factors and environmental factors. One way the genetic contribution has been analyzed is by using twin studies, which reveal that identical twins — who share all their genes — have significantly higher concordance for schizophrenia (i.e., where both have the disease) than do fraternal twins (who share about 50 percent of their genes). That outcome supports the idea that schizophrenia has a significant genetic basis.

On its Website, the Johns Hopkins program explained its justification for using Jewish populations. “Due to a long history of marriage within the faith, which extends back thousands of years, the Jewish community has emerged from a limited number of ancestors and has a similar genetic makeup. This allows researchers to more easily perform genetic studies and locate disease-causing genes.” (See http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/epigen/ashkenazim.htm.) Thus, disease genes may be easier to identify in a more homogeneous genetic population. Ashkenazi Jews have served as a very convenient and generally willing group for research studies. In addition, since it is a fairly homogeneous group, the Ashkenazi population is useful for studies on other aspects of schizophrenia, such as response to, and efficacy of, psychiatric drugs.

It is important to remember that schizophrenia is not determined only by genetic factors. Environmental factors can play an important role in triggering the disease. They can include obstetric complications, infections, substance abuse, and social adversity. Schizophrenia is also hard to study since its diagnosis is often complex. There is no single symptom or disease-specific marker that permits clear diagnosis. There is also considerable variability in the mode and extent that schizophrenia is expressed in patients.

Dr. Ann Pulver, of Johns Hopkins Medical Center, has conducted research on the genetics of schizophrenia over many years and has published numerous papers pertaining to the genetic factors involved in the disease. Every person inherits tens of thousands of genes from his or her parents and those genes contain chemical instructions for development and physical makeup, determining an individual’s functioning, health, and predisposition to disease. The instructions, encoded in DNA, are located on the 23 pairs of chromosomes — the microscopic genetic packages found in every cell of the body.

Pulver’s group and other scientific collaborators have identified some genetic markers that are associated with mental disease. For instance, they discovered that on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 8, 11, 12, and 18 there are sites that may be associated with bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder. Pulver’s research also showed that chromosomes 10 and 22 harbor candidates for schizophrenia-susceptibility genes that may increase a person’s chance of developing the disease.

The brain is an incredibly complex organ, hence it is no surprise that the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia appear to be complex, and that researchers have not identified a single specific gene that causes the disease. In order to analyze the data from the many scientists working on this problem, a centralized Website (http://www.schizophreniaforum.org) was developed to catalogue the numerous studies and try to make sense of conflicting data. The goal of the Website is to serve as a central repository for data on the genetics of schizophrenia, provide the opportunity to determine which studies are consistent with one another, and reconcile studies that have conflicting results.

In more than 1,400 studies, scientists have reported on an astounding 761 genes that may be associated with a predisposition to schizophrenia. The Website lists the top 29 genes and reports which studies found a link between a gene and the disease and which studies found no link. Some of the genes listed include: DISC1 (“disrupted in schizophrenia” 1), located on chromosome 1; GABRB2 (a gene for a brain protein that binds neurotransmitters) on chromosome 5; and DRD2 (a dopamine receptor gene) on chromosome 11.

One example of conflicting research results pertains to the COMT gene, which produces an important brain enzyme. Studies by Israeli researchers at Hebrew University, together with scientists at the pharmaceutical company IDgene, suggested that a variant of the COMT gene, located on chromosome 22, was linked to schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jews. But a group of British researchers failed to find this link in the two groups they studied: Ashkenazi Jews and Irish subjects. Thus the significance of COMT in development of schizophrenia is still unresolved.

A 2008 study published by collaborating scientists from Israel, England, China, Ireland, and the United States suggested RELN, the reelin gene, as a new candidate for a schizophrenia gene. The study showed that a variant of reelin, a gene known to have a role in brain development, is associated with higher incidence of schizophrenia in females. It is not clear why there would be a link between this gene and schizophrenia in women but not in men. The authors acknowledge that “despite the relatively large heritability of schizophrenia, efforts to identify the molecular risk factor have so far yielded equivocal results.”

Pulver reports that these types of studies are critical to gain better understanding of the disease and to find more effective treatments. She pointed out one flaw in past research projects that should be addressed and remedied: “The majority of people coming into our study are men,” she said. “Men are over-represented in our studies; it’s 3 to 1, men to women.”

“This has great implications for females in clinical studies,” explained Pulver, who encourages women to participate in clinical trials. Many studies of drugs, for instance, can reveal which drug had the fewest negative consequences and the best responses. Those studies are mainly based on male subjects. “But men and women are different,” said Pulver. “We need to identify more Ashkenazi Jewish women with schizophrenia. These studies are the highest priority right now.”

Yeshiva University Prof. Rabbi Moshe Tendler, a medical ethicist, has taken a dim view of studies that focus only on Ashkenazi Jews. He has stated that genetic studies will reawaken the idea that “Jews carry genes that are polluting the world. That’s the basis of eugenics. If you have a ‘disease’ gene, don’t you owe it to society not to propagate that gene?”

The use of Jewish subjects in many genetic research studies may have added to anti-Semitic notions concerning mental illness in Jews, and some of those heinous ideas are expressed on anti-Jewish sites on the Web. For instance, a writer on Mid-East Realities (http://www.middleeast.org) claims that Dr. Arnold Hutschnecker (Richard Nixon’s longtime psychiatrist) believed that Jews are “carriers of schizophrenia” and display paranoia, aggressiveness, and racism.

Although concerns have been voiced about research studies leading to the stigmatizing of Jews, clearly there are tremendous benefits reaped from studies that are carefully designed and carried out. When scientists have access to research subjects and are able to scientifically test new drugs and other treatments, there are potential benefits to participants as well as to society as a whole. The underlying causes of schizophrenia will be understood only after careful study, data collection, analysis, and scrutiny in many different populations of affected individuals, including Jews.

 

More on: Schizophrenia research and the Jews

 
 
 

New clinical research study on schizophrenia

Sanofi-Aventis, a Malverne, Pa.-based pharmaceutical company, is enrolling subjects in a study of a new treatment to help schizophrenia patients improve cognitive functioning. Although a press release was sent to Jewish newspapers in this area, according to Brian Gaines, trial manager at Sanofi-Aventis, Jewish subjects are not specifically being recruited; the company is looking for any schizophrenia patients who are stable and relatively healthy. The drug, which is a new compound developed by his company, is thought to work by suppressing certain responses in the brain. It is designed to help patients who have cognitive impairment, that is, according to the press release, “people with schizophrenia [who] struggle to concentrate, remember, and learn.”

 
 
 
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Stay tuned for the return of comments

Ariel posted 12 Nov 2010 at 04:04 AM

November 12,2010

To whom it may concern:

My name is Ariel, I’m a native born San Diegan and I’m of Chinese descent. I’m 28 years old and I work in small family business for a retirement home. I’m a former schizophrenic and I have realized that I must write this letter to discuss that there

needs to be goverment regulations on giving out medications(drugs) to people suffering with Schizophrenia and Bipolar-disorder, and to the most extremes I don’t want people giving out medications to any mental disorder ( including dyslexia and

ADD). The mental doctors that I have discussed my problems with are working with a very traditional procedure that dates back to the 1960s and 70’s. The first time I met with these doctors they didn’t give me a proper analysis of my diagnosis. I’m

fully aware of the technology that is out there, they don’t use their technology to scan my brain and checked how the blood flows in there. I do know that is a very complicated task for them, but then again they never even taken a sample of my blood,

the only thing they have checked for was my weight. These doctors are not making the proper steps to someone with schizophrenia and bipolar. The basic procedure they use is:  the medical specialtist will read there doctoral books, the patient will

discuss their problem to them in a private room, the doctor takes no physical samples from them, and then they just find the best medication(drug) they think works best for them. The treatment is now a educated theory and it just doen’t work with

people. Here are some things that I would like to point out:

-American media is seriously against use of goverment drugs to people with mental disorders. Take a look at the movie ” One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest” starring Jack Nicholson, or the movie “Changeling” with Angelina Jolie, these movies have

an anti-medication theme to it. Lindsay Lohan is actual real life story, we all know this girl has experimented with drugs and alcohol. She was sent to rehab for it, and was given goverment drugs for it. When she was out of rehab, she eventually told

her mother she had stopped taking her meds. She and her mother had a verbal disagreement, and her mom called her a drug addict in public for not taking her meds. Lohan’s story is seriously the same scenario as many troubled youths all across the

country.

-I do think outside of my own box. The one issue that comes to my mind is the drug war in Mexico, this is having a major impact on society throughout their country, people are dying and it starting to effect the U.S. I do know that there are druglords

sneaking their stuff into the border states and many youths here are coming acrossing them, for many young patients this is were their war -in -the head begins. I feel the best we can do for ourselves is too clean ourselves up here at home and throw

these goverment drugs away.

-I see the problems within my own community, I have met enough people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. My friend down the street is suffering with bipolar disorder since his late teens, he’s the same age as me and we went to high school

together. He hasn’t worked in a very long time and he’s highly religious. He has never done street drugs. He’s spent enough time at a mental hospital and when he comes back to his parents house. His parents are not fully understanding what he’s

experiencing and they tell him to take his medications (drugs) for his own good or he’s kicked out. Once again, its the same scenario as Lindsay Lohan and her parents, the only difference between her and everybody else is that she has money to be

on her own. It is pointless to even hand out a medication when they just need time to clear out their mind.

I have talked to alot of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Some people talk about philosophy, they talk about the universe, some say they hear messages and see signs, and some are quite vague about their spirituality. When we narrow

it down, its obvious that we are all hearing about God. I wish I could be there in person to express my views fully. Please feel free to write me back.


                                                            Ariel                  

                                              Email - .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

 

Jersey City Boy

Mayor Steven Fulop tells his story — and his immigrant parents schep naches

The story of the new mayor of Jersey City is a goulash — a rich, highly seasoned, aromatic stew, full of disparate ingredients that somehow blend together.

This variant is kosher.

And for added authenticity, it’s Hungarian.

Steven Fulop’s story is both as deeply American and as fully Jewish as one person’s story could be — it is our own 21st-century version of the great American dream.

Cooking alongside it is the story of Jersey City, the state’s second largest, with a century-long history of corruption and bossism that Mr. Fulop is well positioned to turn around.

Mr. Fulop’s story starts with his grandparents. All four were born in Transylvania, the heavily wooded, mountainous, lushly beautiful region that has changed hands between Hungary and Romania. As this story begins, it still was part of Hungary. World War II came late there; his mother’s parents, the Kohns, were taken from the ghetto toward its end. His grandfather, Alexander, went to a transit camp, and his grandmother, Rosa, was on one of the last transports to Auschwitz in April 1944.

Her story is so painful that when her son-in-law, Arthur Fulop, tells it, his eyes fill, even though it is a story he has been telling for decades.

 

Take my kidney. Please…

Local cantor is living donor for beloved congregant

It’s fairly easy to say “I hope you feel better” to a sick friend.

It’s much harder to put your kidney where your mouth is, but Cantor Eric Wasser of the Fair Lawn Jewish Center did.

On February 19, he donated a kidney to his friend, Harvey Jaffee of Garfield.

Mr. Jaffee was in what his doctors “were starting to call end-stage kidney failure,” he reported. He now has a functioning kidney and will be able to resume his life, and Cantor Wasser will be able to return to his. Both, they say, feel enriched and ennobled (if temporarily weakened) by the experience.

Mr. Jaffee’s kidneys had been failing for some time, and he had trekked from doctor to doctor as he tried to get on the registry for a transplant. The screening process is extraordinarily thorough. “It’s one of the most daunting things in the world,” he said. “They send you to doctor after doctor, to check every orifice you have — and some that you don’t. Sometimes I was seeing four or five doctors a week.

 

The essence is to wake us all up

Ikar founder Rabbi Sharon Brous and local leaders talk about building a living Jewish community

Rabbi Sharon Brous radiates intensely concentrated passionate hummingbird energy in almost tactile waves.

It is hard to imagine how anyone could have done what she did — created and maintained a Jewish community that has grown wildly, attracted devoted members, brought disaffected Jews back to Judaism, juggled the tensions between tradition, innovation, accessibility, and fidelity — but once you meet her, you can see that if anyone could have undertaken that impossible-sounding feat, it would have to be her.

Ikar, the Los Angeles synagogue that Rabbi Brous imagined and shaped 10 years ago, is now a 580-plus family shul, with a 150-child preschool, a multigenerational membership, and a growing future. Rabbi Brous has garnered so much recognition and so many awards almost off-handedly — on the Forward’s 50 most influential Jews for years! On Newsweek’s Top 50 rabbis list for years, once as number one! Giving the benediction at Barack Obama’s second inauguration! — that it is hard to realize that she is only 41.

 

RECENTLYADDED

The Jewish people’s 911

Local archivist collects a century of JDC photographs

Twenty-six serious men sit around the table.

Two of the men have long beards; half wear mustaches. Scattered between them are two women, one of whom, of course, is the stenographer, known only as Mrs. F. Friedman. The other is the comptroller.

The year is 1918, and the men are leaders of the Jewish community. Most, like the host of the meeting, banker Felix Warburg, and his father-in-law, banker Jacob Schiff, are Reform Jews of German origin. A couple, including those with beards, are Orthodox and from Eastern Europe. Some are rabbis; one is novelist Sholem Asch. The comptroller is Harriet B. Lowenstein.

Meet the founders of the Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers, the organization now known as the American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and variously as JDC or “the Joint” for short.

 

The case of the family tree

Local rabbi solves genealogical mystery

Move over Sherlock Holmes. There’s some pretty good detective work going on right here in Bergen County.

Putting together clues and puzzle-like pieces of information, Rabbi Benjamin Shull has solved what he jokingly refers to as his “semi-obsession” — the search for more branches on his family tree.

In the process, he has discovered previously unknown relatives, uncovered a direct link to a renowned Lithuanian rabbi and Musar activist, and come into possession of a beautiful, illuminated honest-to-goodness family tree.

Rabbi Shull, the religious leader of Temple Emanuel of the Pascack Valley in Woodcliff Lake, has written a memoir, “Uprooted,” detailing his journey.

His story begins in the early 1990s, at the cemetery in Philadelphia where his father’s family is buried.

 

The little house in the big woods

Artist’s family remembers growing up in Fort Lee

The three children grew up in the middle of the woods.

There were acres of land all around the house; waterfalls tumbled from the rocky hills and splashed down in their rush toward the mighty color-shifting river far below. There were trees to climb, trails to blaze, rocks to scale. For half of the year, glorious canopies of trees shaded their view; when the leaves fell, the children could see the river, and the ships that steamed silently upriver to unload and then headed back south again, out to sea.

It was a perfect pastoral scene, the backdrop for a bucolic 19th-century childhood.

Then pull the camera back a bit. You’ll see that the river is the Hudson, the time the second half of the 20th century, and the town is Fort Lee.

 
 
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